Top 5 Conditions Detected By Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays

 

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a sensitive and specific biochemical or immunological technique that detects presence or absence of antibodies and/or antigens in a sample. An antibody is conjugated to a 96- or 384-well plate with a buffer. The intensity of the colorimetric signal from the antigen-antibody reaction gives information about the results. Because of its effectiveness, the ELISA tests have been run to detect the following conditions:

  1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

This is a fatal but slowly progressing disease. The main symptom of ALS is a loss of motor control. This is attributed to the death of motor neurons in the spinal cord. A high percentage of the condition is seen to occur in a sporadic manner but at least 10% of patients have ALS because of genetics.

The two main genes associated with ALS are SOD (Superoxide dismutase 1) and C9orf72. Metal aggregations, a symptom of SOD1 dysfunction, affects neurons and is somehow responsible for ALS. Nucleic acid binding proteins also aggregate, thus there isn’t regulation of protein transcription.

  1. Cardiac arrest

This is the sudden loss of heart function. The sinus node on the heart’s right atrium controls electrical stimulation to the heart. This node synchronizes blood flow and the heartbeat. Abnormal ventricular fibrillation results in heart attacks.

  1. Asthma

This is a chronic medical condition that causes inflammation of the airways. The main symptoms are wheezing, coughing and general breathing difficulties. Normally, during an asthma attack, the airways become swollen and extremely sensitive to allergens. The swollen muscles tighten and become narrow, making it hard to breathe. More mucus is produced by the air passages and there is a limited amount of air reaching the lungs.

ELISA tests run on asthma patients show increased levels of antibodies. The presence of an antibody or antibodies signals an immune response launched against allergens (pathogens or antigens) causing the asthma attack. Some of the asthma-attack-instigating allergens include pollen grains, cigarette smoke, animal fur/ dander, dust, air pollution and respiratory infections.

Despite lacking a cure, asthma patients can live for long with the cases of asthma attacks managed. There are long-term and short-term strategies that offer long healthy life.

  1. Myocardial infarctions

This is a condition that results from blood flow blockage to the heart. The coronary heart disease is the main cause of the blood flow blockage. Besides blood flow being cut off, you may experience heart muscle spasms that lead to heart attacks. The main cause of the blockage is anaccumulation of plaques which rupture and spill into the blood stream, creating blood clots at the rupture sites.

  1. Obesity

This is a condition that affects your medical status adversely. There are different biomolecules that are affected or are used to measure whether you are obese or not. Being obese makes you susceptible to diseases and conditions such as cancer, diabetes, and other heart-related ailments.

 

In conclusion, these conditions are life changing. Early detection helps in management. The ELISA test kits detect presence or absence of antibodies raised to fight the disease-causing pathogens. Some of these conditions like myocardial infarctions, obesity and cardiac arrests are contributed by lifestyle and therefore , a healthy lifestyle will help you steer free of these conditions.